Индийские штаты с хинди, английским и региональными языками в качестве официальных государственных языков
В Индии разговаривают на 447 различных языках, 2 тыс. диалектов. В Конституции Индии оговорено, что хинди и английский являются двумя языками работы национального правительства, то есть государственными языками. Кроме того представлен официальный список из 22 языков (scheduled languages), которые могут использоваться правительствами индийских штатов для различных административных целей.
Было запланировано, что в 1965 году английский язык лишится статуса государственного и будет называться «дополнительным государственным языком» до тех пор, пока не закончится полномасштабный переход на хинди. Однако в связи с протестами некоторых штатов, в которых хинди не получил распространения, была сохранена ситуация, когда два языка являются государственными. Из-за быстрой индустриализации и многонационального влияния в экономике английский язык продолжает оставаться популярным и влиятельным средством связи в государственном управлении и бизнесе.
↑ Assamese is the official language of the State. Bodo is used as an associate official language for specific purposes in the districts of Kokrajhar and Nalbari and in the Udalguri sub division. Bengali is used for administrative and other official purposes in the districts of the Barak valley.. See also .
КонканиThe Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used for "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. A petition is pending before the Supreme Court demanding official language status to Marathi as well.
↑ Punjabi is the official language of the state. Section 8 of Punjab's Official Language Act requires the state Government to "take suitable steps to develop the Hindi language in the State" but does not give Hindi any official status. .
↑ English, Hindi, and Urdu are the official languages of the state, although the purposes for which Urdu is used have not been fully described. .
↑ Hindi is the official language, and Urdu is used for seven specific purposes, similar to those for which it is used in Bihar. .
↑ Bengali is the official language of West Bengal. Nepali is recognised as an additional official language in Darjeeling district. In addition, the government has a policy of replying to representations received in minority languages in those languages. .
↑ Urdu and Punjabi are the second official languages of Delhi under the Delhi Official Language Bill, 2000
↑ Three languages are used for official purposes - Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. However, English and French are also reorganized for official purpose as per the official language policy. The official language policy of the union territory states that the Tamil language should be used for all or any of the official purposes of the union territory. In case of Mahe and Yanam, Malayalam and Telugu may be respectively used for official purpose. The English language may also be used for all or any of the official purposes. The French language shall remain the official language of the establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise (ACT 28, Gazetteer, Pondicherry Vol. 1, P. II)Multilingualism and second language acquisition and learning in Pondicherry
↑ The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu to be the official language. This enactment was implemented by GO Ms No 420 in 2005.
↑ Urdu is used as a second official language in certain districts for certain specific purposes.
↑ Five languages spoken by the principal tribes in Arunachal Pradesh - Adi language>Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti and Nishi are offered to students in state schools, however English is the language of administration and recruitment. .
↑ Urdu is recognised as an additional official language for seven specific purposes, namely, receiving and replying to representations from the public; receiving documents in government offices; publishing delegated legislation>rules, regulations and notices; issuing important letters and orders; publishing important advertisements; publishing government gazettes; and signboards at important places and offices..
↑ The The Chhattisgarh Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2007 added "Chhattisgarhi" as an official language of the state, in addition to Hindi.
↑Article 145 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir makes Urdu the official language of the state, but provides for the continued use of English for all official purposes.
↑Article 146 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, read together with the sixth schedule thereto, requires the government of the state to establish an academy to develop eight regional languages, namely Kashmiri language>Kashmiri, Dogri, Balti, Dardi, Punjabi, Pahari, Ladakhi and Gojri. None of these, however, are official.
↑ Section 2(f) of the Manipur Official Language Act, 1979 states that the official language of Manipur is the Manipuri language (an older English name for the Meitei language) written in the Bengali script. .
↑ Nine tribal languages are recognised for the purpose of education, but have no other official status. .
Кхаси, Гаро,The 43rd report of the National Commission of Linguistic Minorities reports that, from a date to be determined, Кхаси will have the status of an associate official language in the districts of the East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Ri Bhoi. Garo will have a similar status in the districts of the East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills and South Garo Hills. . On the 21st of March 2006, the Chief Minister of Meghalaya stated in the State Assembly that a notification to this effect had been issued. .
↑ Eleven other languages — Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo, Newari, Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang - are termed "official", but only for the purposes of the preservation of culture and tradition. . See also .
↑ Whilst Tamil is the only official language, important communications are published in minority languages, and electoral rolls are published in Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam in areas where they are widely used. .